Terms & Conditions

We have Recently updated our Terms and Conditions. Please read and accept the terms and conditions in order to access the site

Terms and Conditions

Last updated: May 24, 2018 Please read these Terms and Conditions ("Terms", "Terms and Conditions") carefully before using the https://thegutstuff.com/ website (the "Service") operated by The Gut Stuff ("us", "we", or "our"). Your access to and use of the Service is conditioned on your acceptance of and compliance with these Terms. These Terms apply to all visitors, users and others who access or use the Service. By accessing or using the Service you agree to be bound by these Terms. If you disagree with any part of the terms then you may not access the Service.


You are encouraged to familiarise yourself with your rights contained within the Sale of Goods Act 1979, Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999. If you wish to purchase any product or service made available through the Service ("Purchase"), you may be asked to supply certain information relevant to your Purchase including, without limitation, your credit card number, the expiration date of your credit card, your billing address, and your shipping information. You represent and warrant that: (i) you have the legal right to use any credit card(s) or other payment method(s) in connection with any Purchase; and that (ii) the information you supply to us is true, correct and complete. You expressly agree that The Gut Stuff is not responsible for any loss or damage arising from the submission of false or inaccurate information. By submitting such information, you grant us the right to provide the information to third parties for purposes of facilitating the completion of Purchases. We reserve the right to refuse or cancel your order at any time for certain reasons including but not limited to: product or service availability, errors in the description or price of the product or service, error in your order or other reasons. You expressly agree that The Gut Stuff cannot accept any liability for loss or damage arising out of such cancellation. We reserve the right to refuse or cancel your order if fraud or an unauthorised or illegal transaction is suspected.

Availability, Errors and Inaccuracies

We are constantly updating our offerings of products and services on the Service. The products or services available on our Service may be mispriced, described inaccurately, or unavailable, and we may experience delays in updating information on the Service and in our advertising on other web sites. You expressly agree that any such offer of a product or service does not constitute a legal offer capable of attracting legal consequences. We cannot and do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information, including prices, product images, specifications, availability, and services. We reserve the right to change or update information and to correct errors, inaccuracies, or omissions at any time without prior notice. Section "Availability, Errors and Inaccuracies" is without prejudice to existing statutory rights.

Contests, Sweepstakes and Promotions

Any contests, sweepstakes or other promotions (collectively, "Promotions") made available through the Service may be governed by rules that are separate from these Terms. If you participate in any Promotions, please review the applicable rules as well as our Privacy Policy. If the rules for a Promotion conflict with these Terms and Conditions, the Promotion rules will apply. The terms and conditions of any other "Promotions" are independent of this agreement.

Intellectual Property

The Service and its original content, features and functionality are and will remain the exclusive property of The Gut Stuff and its licensors. The Service is protected by copyright, trademark, and other laws of both the United Kingdom and foreign countries. Our trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service without the prior written consent of The Gut Stuff.

Links To Other Web Sites

Our Service may contain links to third-party web sites or services that are not owned or controlled by The Gut Stuff. The Gut Stuff has no control over, and assumes no responsibility for, the content, privacy policies, or practices of any third party web sites or services. You further acknowledge and agree that The Gut Stuff shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods or services available on or through any such web sites or services. We strongly advise you to read the terms and conditions and privacy policies of any third-party web sites or services that you visit.


We may terminate or suspend your access immediately, without prior notice or liability, for any reason whatsoever, including without limitation if you breach the Terms. Upon termination, your right to use the Service will immediately cease. All provisions of the Terms which by their nature should survive termination shall survive termination, including, without limitation, ownership provisions, warranty disclaimers, indemnity and limitations of liability.


You agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless The Gut Stuff and its licensee and licensors, and their employees, contractors, agents, officers and directors, from and against any and all claims, damages, obligations, losses, liabilities, costs or debt, and expenses (including but not limited to attorney's fees), resulting from or arising out of a) your use and access of the Service, or b) a breach of these Terms.

Limitation Of Liability

In no event shall The Gut Stuff, nor its directors, employees, partners, agents, suppliers, or affiliates, be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages, including without limitation, loss of profits, data, use, goodwill, or other intangible losses, resulting from (i) your access to or use of or inability to access or use the Service; (ii) any conduct or content of any third party on the Service; (iii) any content obtained from the Service; and (iv) unauthorized access, use or alteration of your transmissions or content, whether based on warranty, contract, tort (including negligence) or any other legal theory, whether or not we have been informed of the possibility of such damage, and even if a remedy set forth herein is found to have failed of its essential purpose.


Your use of the Service is at your sole risk. The Service is provided on an "AS IS" and "AS AVAILABLE" basis. The Service is provided without warranties of any kind, whether express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement or course of performance. The Gut Stuff its subsidiaries, affiliates, and its licensors do not warrant that a) the Service will function uninterrupted, secure or available at any particular time or location; b) any errors or defects will be corrected; c) the Service is free of viruses or other harmful components; or d) the results of using the Service will meet your requirements.


Without limiting the generality of the foregoing and notwithstanding any other provision of these terms, under no circumstances will The Gut Stuff ever be liable to you or any other person for any indirect, incidental, consequential, special, punitive or exemplary loss or damage arising from, connected with, or relating to your use of the Service, these Terms, the subject matter of these Terms, the termination of these Terms or otherwise, including but not limited to personal injury, loss of data, business, markets, savings, income, profits, use, production, reputation or goodwill, anticipated or otherwise, or economic loss, under any theory of liability (whether in contract, tort, strict liability or any other theory or law or equity), regardless of any negligence or other fault or wrongdoing (including without limitation gross negligence and fundamental breach) by The Gut Stuff or any person for whom The Gut Stuff is responsible, and even if The Gut Stuff has been advised of the possibility of such loss or damage being incurred.

Governing Law

These Terms shall be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales, without regard to its conflict of law provisions. Our failure to enforce any right or provision of these Terms will not be considered a waiver of those rights. If any provision of these Terms is held to be invalid or unenforceable by a court, the remaining provisions of these Terms will remain in effect. These Terms constitute the entire agreement between us regarding our Service, and supersede and replace any prior agreements we might have between us regarding the Service.


We reserve the right, at our sole discretion, to modify or replace these Terms at any time. If a revision is material we will try to provide at least 30 days notice prior to any new terms taking effect. What constitutes a material change will be determined at our sole discretion. By continuing to access or use our Service after those revisions become effective, you agree to be bound by the revised terms. If you do not agree to the new terms, you must stop using the service.

Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy

Please refer to our Privacy Policy and Cookies Policy. You agree that they constitute part of these terms. You must read our Privacy Policy and Cookies Policy before you use the Service.

Contact Us

If you have any questions about these Terms, please contact us.

Current Version: 1

Privacy Policy

We have Recently updated our Privacy Policy. Please read and accept the Privacy Policy in order to access the site

Privacy Policy

Effective date: May 24, 2018 The Gut Stuff ("us", "we", or "our") operates the https://thegutstuff.com/ website (the "Service"). This page informs you of our policies regarding the collection, use, and disclosure of personal data when you use our Service and the choices you have associated with that data. We use your data to provide and improve the Service. By using the Service, you agree to the collection and use of information in accordance with this policy. Unless otherwise defined in this Privacy Policy, terms used in this Privacy Policy have the same meanings as in our Terms and Conditions, accessible from https://thegutstuff.com/


Service Service is the https://thegutstuff.com/ website operated by The Gut Stuff Personal Data Personal Data means data about a living individual who can be identified from those data (or from those and other information either in our possession or likely to come into our possession). Usage Data Usage Data is data collected automatically either generated by the use of the Service or from the Service infrastructure itself (for example, the duration of a page visit). Cookies Cookies are small pieces of data stored on your device (computer or mobile device). Data Controller Data Controller means the natural or legal person who (either alone or jointly or in common with other persons) determines the purposes for which and the manner in which any personal information are, or are to be, processed. For the purpose of this Privacy Policy, we are a Data Controller of your Personal Data. Data Processors (or Service Providers) Data Processor (or Service Provider) means any natural or legal person who processes the data on behalf of the Data Controller. We may use the services of various Service Providers in order to process your data more effectively. Data Subject (or User) Data Subject is any living individual who is using our Service and is the subject of Personal Data.

Information Collection and Use

We collect several different types of information for various purposes to provide and improve our Service to you.

Types of Data Collected

Personal Data

While using our Service, we may ask you to provide us with certain personally identifiable information that can be used to contact or identify you ("Personal Data"). Personally identifiable information may include, but is not limited to:
  • Email address
  • First name and last name
  • Phone number
  • Address, State, Province, ZIP/Postal code, City
  • Cookies and Usage Data
We may use your Personal Data to contact you with newsletters, marketing or promotional materials and other information that may be of interest to you. You may opt out of receiving any, or all, of these communications from us by contacting us.

Usage Data

We may also collect information how the Service is accessed and used ("Usage Data"). This Usage Data may include information such as your computer's Internet Protocol address (e.g. IP address), browser type, browser version, the pages of our Service that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data.

Tracking Cookies Data

We use cookies and similar tracking technologies to track the activity on our Service and hold certain information. Cookies are files with small amount of data which may include an anonymous unique identifier. Cookies are sent to your browser from a website and stored on your device. Tracking technologies also used are beacons, tags, and scripts to collect and track information and to improve and analyze our Service. You can instruct your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, if you do not accept cookies, you may not be able to use some portions of our Service. Examples of Cookies we use:
  • Session Cookies. We use Session Cookies to operate our Service.
  • Preference Cookies. We use Preference Cookies to remember your preferences and various settings.
  • Security Cookies. We use Security Cookies for security purposes.

Use of Data

The Gut Stuff uses the collected data for various purposes:
  • To provide and maintain our Service
  • To notify you about changes to our Service
  • To allow you to participate in interactive features of our Service when you choose to do so
  • To provide customer support
  • To gather analysis or valuable information so that we can improve our Service
  • To monitor the usage of our Service
  • To detect, prevent and address technical issues
  • To provide you with news, special offers and general information about other goods, services and events which we offer that are similar to those that you have already purchased or enquired about unless you have opted not to receive such information

Legal Basis for Processing Personal Data Under General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

If you are from the European Economic Area (EEA), The Gut Stuff legal basis for collecting and using the personal information described in this Privacy Policy depends on the Personal Data we collect and the specific context in which we collect it. The Gut Stuff may process your Personal Data because:
  • We need to perform a contract with you
  • You have given us permission to do so
  • The processing is in our legitimate interests and it's not overridden by your rights
  • For payment processing purposes
  • To comply with the law

Retention of Data

The Gut Stuff will retain your Personal Data only for as long as is necessary for the purposes set out in this Privacy Policy. We will retain and use your Personal Data to the extent necessary to comply with our legal obligations (for example, if we are required to retain your data to comply with applicable laws), resolve disputes, and enforce our legal agreements and policies. The Gut Stuff will also retain Usage Data for internal analysis purposes. Usage Data is generally retained for a shorter period of time, except when this data is used to strengthen the security or to improve the functionality of our Service, or we are legally obligated to retain this data for longer time periods.

Transfer of Data

Your information, including Personal Data, may be transferred to — and maintained on — computers located outside of your state, province, country or other governmental jurisdiction where the data protection laws may differ than those from your jurisdiction. If you are located outside United Kingdom and choose to provide information to us, please note that we transfer the data, including Personal Data, to United Kingdom and process it there. Your consent to this Privacy Policy followed by your submission of such information represents your agreement to that transfer. The Gut Stuff will take all steps reasonably necessary to ensure that your data is treated securely and in accordance with this Privacy Policy and no transfer of your Personal Data will take place to an organization or a country unless there are adequate controls in place including the security of your data and other personal information.

Disclosure of Data

Business Transaction

If The Gut Stuff is involved in a merger, acquisition or asset sale, your Personal Data may be transferred. We will provide notice before your Personal Data is transferred and becomes subject to a different Privacy Policy.

Legal Requirements

The Gut Stuff may disclose your Personal Data in the good faith belief that such action is necessary to:
  • To comply with a legal obligation
  • To protect and defend the rights or property of The Gut Stuff
  • To prevent or investigate possible wrongdoing in connection with the Service
  • To protect the personal safety of users of the Service or the public
  • To protect against legal liability

Security of Data

The security of your data is important to us, but remember that no method of transmission over the Internet, or method of electronic storage is 100% secure. While we strive to use commercially acceptable means to protect your Personal Data, we cannot guarantee its absolute security.

Your Data Protection Rights Under General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

If you are a resident of the European Economic Area (EEA), you have certain data protection rights. The Gut Stuff aims to take reasonable steps to allow you to correct, amend, delete, or limit the use of your Personal Data. If you wish to be informed what Personal Data we hold about you and if you want it to be removed from our systems, please contact us. In certain circumstances, you have the following data protection rights: The right to access, update or to delete the information we have on you. Whenever made possible, you can access, update or request deletion of your Personal Data directly within your account settings section. If you are unable to perform these actions yourself, please contact us to assist you. The right of rectification. You have the right to have your information rectified if that information is inaccurate or incomplete. The right to object. You have the right to object to our processing of your Personal Data. The right of restriction. You have the right to request that we restrict the processing of your personal information. The right to data portability. You have the right to be provided with a copy of the information we have on you in a structured, machine-readable and commonly used format. The right to withdraw consent. You also have the right to withdraw your consent at any time where The Gut Stuff relied on your consent to process your personal information. Please note that we may ask you to verify your identity before responding to such requests. You have the right to complain to a Data Protection Authority about our collection and use of your Personal Data. For more information, please contact your local data protection authority in the European Economic Area (EEA).

Service Providers

We may employ third party companies and individuals to facilitate our Service ("Service Providers"), to provide the Service on our behalf, to perform Service-related services or to assist us in analyzing how our Service is used. These third parties have access to your Personal Data only to perform these tasks on our behalf and are obligated not to disclose or use it for any other purpose.


We may provide paid products and/or services within the Service. In that case, we use third-party services for payment processing (e.g. payment processors). We will not store or collect your payment card details. That information is provided directly to our third-party payment processors whose use of your personal information is governed by their Privacy Policy. These payment processors adhere to the standards set by PCI-DSS as managed by the PCI Security Standards Council, which is a joint effort of brands like Visa, Mastercard, American Express and Discover. PCI-DSS requirements help ensure the secure handling of payment information. The payment processors we work with are: Sage Pay Their policies can be viewed at https://www.sagepay.co.uk/policies

Links to Other Sites

Our Service may contain links to other sites that are not operated by us. If you click on a third party link, you will be directed to that third party's site. We strongly advise you to review the Privacy Policy of every site you visit. We have no control over and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies or practices of any third party sites or services.

Children's Privacy

Our Service does not address anyone under the age of 18 ("Children"). We do not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from anyone under the age of 18. If you are a parent or guardian and you are aware that your Children has provided us with Personal Data, please contact us. If we become aware that we have collected Personal Data from children without verification of parental consent, we take steps to remove that information from our servers.

Changes to This Privacy Policy

We may update our Privacy Policy from time to time. We will notify you of any changes by posting the new Privacy Policy on this page. We will let you know via email and/or a prominent notice on our Service, prior to the change becoming effective and update the "effective date" at the top of this Privacy Policy. You are advised to review this Privacy Policy periodically for any changes. Changes to this Privacy Policy are effective when they are posted on this page.

Contact Us

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, please contact us:
  • By visiting this page on our website: https://thegutstuff.com/privacy-policy/

Current Version: 1

Allergies: What’s your microbiome gut to do with it?

While we can’t say for sure why allergy rates are increasing (and it’s unlikely down to one factor alone).  There are some things that we do know. Allergies tend to run in families, so we know genetics are one culprit. This genetic risk factor is known as atopy. This means that children, where one or both parents have an allergic disease, are much more likely to develop these conditions (1). The ‘atopic march’ is a term used to describe a genetically predisposed individual’s progress from one type of allergy to another, with age. For example eczema at birth, then food allergy and then asthma. However, just because your child has eczema doesn’t mean they’ll get more allergies. It just means there’s a higher risk of it happening (2). But genetics is only part of the picture since we have been carrying similar genes in our DNA for thousands of years without being allergic.   


In fact, allergies are increasingly considered to be a by-product of our modern lifestyles, more likely to affect people who are distanced from traditional upbringings (3). At least part of the answer lies in changes to the composition of your body’s good bacteria — collectively known as the microbiota — the majority of which live in our guts. With modern-day dietary and lifestyle changes, antibiotics, pollution, our own inner biodiversity is being slowly eroded, and with it our immunity. 


Microbes & immunity – friend or foe?

A large part of what our immune system does is fight off germs to keep us well. But our understanding is actually much broader: Immunity ensures we respond appropriately when we encounter anything in the world around us — not only harmful germs.  With the vast improvements in sanitation and healthcare, germs are no longer the enemy in our modern-day lifestyles. In fact, 99% of germs that surround us at any given moment (and we are surrounded everywhere all the time) do not cause disease. Rather, they are healthy ‘good’ bacteria — our microscopic health allies and immune system educators. Your immune system is all the time being calibrated by your body’s good bacteria to only respond to things that are actually threatening.  Our relationship with ‘good’ microbes on us, in us and around means we are actually super ecosystems. But if that system breaks down it can lead to immune-mediated diseases such as allergy. 


Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis

Decreased exposure to infections in early life through improved ‘hygiene’ was originally thought to increase the risk of allergy. The idea that there might be a link between the rise in allergy and a decline in infection, known as the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, was proposed back in 1989 (4).  Early childhood exposure to germs was thought to protect from allergy by encouraging proper immune development.  But are allergies really the price we pay for freedom from the burden of killer infections that our grandparents feared yet are rare in our modern world? 


True, proper development of our immune system is supported by interactions with germs but hygiene is a misnomer.  The hygiene hypothesis has now been largely been overthrown, replaced by the ‘Old Friends’ Hypothesis (5).  This suggests that rather than being too clean, the most important change in our environment that leaves us open to allergies the loss of contact with our ‘old friends’ – the many harmless microbes in us, on us and around us from birth.  


Interacting with these ‘old friends’, are not the exposures to colds, flu or serious childhood diseases, but rather the 99% of harmless microbes in our environment.  Our immune systems need to ‘see’ these good germs which in turn provide vital inputs that educate and shape our immunity from birth. This process serves to diversify our own flourishing microbial ecosystems which are in charge of training and shaping our immune systems, tinkering with how our immune system chooses to respond or ‘tolerate’ harmless things in our environment.  Much of this happens in the microbes’ own backyard – our guts! In fact, these days, there is little doubt that your gut resident microbes, have a big say in how your whole immune system develops, including how whether you develop allergies or not (6). 


So it follows that if your gut microbiota are in charge of training the immune system. When there are alterations in the composition of our gut microbiota, consequences like allergies might arise. But how? The gut microbiota is a changing ecosystem, containing trillions of bacteria, continuously shaped by many factors, such as dietary habits, seasonality, lifestyle, stress, antibiotics use, or diseases.


Here are some of the key factors affecting this relationship between microbes and health?  


1. Us humans are diverse ecosystems, and so are our environments. 

Our environment is becoming rapidly urbanized with these drastic changes interrupting the healthy development of our ‘old friends’: dirt is good (7). Disconnection from nature is not.  For example, soil has a microbiome and it’s where we used to get many of our good bacteria from. Acquiring soil and other harmless environmental microbes such as those of fresh produce that we eat are called ‘horizontal transmission’. Even the air we breathe carries its own microbiome (8). Today, we are so far removed from these natural environments, that we’re missing out on some of the crucial microorganisms that used to populate our own microbiome. Now I am not suggesting we all start eating dirt (there are definitely risks there), but gentle exposure to germs that live in natural environments.  Getting outdoors into parks and, where possible, the countryside, particularly during childhood.  

2. Early life influences

 including C-sections and formula feeding alter gut bacterial species (gut more info here) (9, 10,11).  But these are not always within our control. Plus its complex, just having a c-section and formula feeding isn’t necessarily a shortcut to your kid developing allergies. 

3. Changing dietary habits

Just like us, bacteria in our guts need to eat. When your microbes chow down on fiber-rich diets, they produce a veritable banquet of metabolic trash by-products known as ‘postbiotics’ that are key in educating our immune system.  Turns out we are now eating much less fibre than ever before, replacing it with fibre poor processed food with its potentially microbiome-harming high levels of salt, sugar, and fat. Plus sweeteners, additives, emulsifiers are changing our microbiomes in ways that are only just beginning to be explored (12). 

4. The changing way our food is produced

Where and how it’s grown, what it was sprayed with and how far it has travelled) influences the number and variety of the microorganisms.  Eating produce grown in healthy soils, typically associated with organic cultivation, which has a significantly more diverse bacteria population than their conventionally grown counterparts (13). 

5. Use of antibiotics and medications

A study of children who were given antibiotics before the age of two showed that a startling 74 percent of them were, on average, nearly twice as likely to have developed asthma by the time they were eight. The more courses of antibiotics kids received, the more likely they were to develop asthma, eczema and hay fever even if they did not have a genetic risk (14). 


The future is bright

While we have treatments for the symptoms of allergy, we do not yet have a cure or the ability to prevent them from developing in the first place. The good news is that increasing awareness in both patients and healthcare providers means that although allergies are on the rise, serious complications and fatalities are not. But there remains much work to be done in preventing the development of allergies in the first place.  Thanks to a century of germaphobia and hyper-sanitation, industrialisation of food and overuse of antibiotics, we’ve inadvertently caused a mass extinction of microbes inside us sending our immunity haywire and allergies through the roof. The environmental inputs your immune system needs to develop properly are complex, and not fully understood. Even if you are doing everything right, the modern world in which we live is perhaps now lacking many of the key microbial inputs our immunity needs.  The good news is that our improved understanding of these ‘old microbial friends’ is taking us leaps and jumps into future treatments and early protection from allergies. 



About the author

Immunologist Dr. Jenna Macciochi unravels the science underlying strong immunity and teaches us how to be well in a modern world. Currently a lecturer at the University of Sussex, she specialises in understanding how nutrition, lifestyle, and gut health interact with the immune system in health and disease. Jenna is a Brighton (UK) based mum to twins, a perpetual kitchen experimenter with a passion for movement and exercise.



  1. Ferreira, M. A. et al. (2017) ‘Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology’, Nature Genetics. Nature Publishing Group, 49(12), pp. 1752–1757. doi: 10.1038/ng.3985. 
  2. Wickman, M. (2005) ‘When allergies complicate allergies’, Allergy, 60, pp. 14–18.doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00852.x. 
  3. Flandroy, L. et al. (2018) ‘The impact of human activities and lifestyles on the interlinked microbiota and health of humans and of ecosystems’, Science of the Total Environment. Elsevier B.V., pp. 1018–1038. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.288 
  4. Strachan, D. P. (1989) ‘Hay fever, hygiene, and household size’, British Medical Journal, 299(6710), pp. 1259–1260. doi: 10.1136/bmj.299.6710.1259. 
  5. Guarner, F. et al. (2006) ‘Mechanisms of disease: The hygiene hypothesis revisited’,Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology and Hepatology, pp. 275–284. doi: 10.1038/ncpgasthep0471. 
  6. Gensollen, T. and Blumberg, R. S. (2017) ‘Correlation between early-life regulation of the immune system by microbiota and allergy development’, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Mosby Inc., pp. 1084–1091. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.02.011. 
  7. Mills, J. G. et al. (2019) ‘Relating urban biodiversity to human health with the “Holobiont” concept’, Frontiers in Microbiology. Frontiers Media S.A. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00550. 
  8. Meadow, J. F. et al. (2014) ‘Indoor airborne bacterial communities are influenced by ventilation, occupancy, and outdoor air source’, Indoor Air, 24(1), pp. 41–48. doi: 10.1111/ina.12047. 
  9. Bokulich, NA. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life. Science Translational Medicine  15 Jun 2016: Vol. 8, Issue 343, pp. 343ra82. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aad7121 
  10. Dominguez-Bello MG et al. Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 29; 107(26): 11971–11975. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1002601107 
  11. Bode, L. Human milk oligosaccharides: every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology. 2012 Sep;22(9):1147-62. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cws074. 
  12. Rinninella, E. et al. (2019) ‘Food components and dietary habits: Keys for a healthy gut microbiota composition’, Nutrients. MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/nu11102393. 
  13. Wassermann, B., Müller, H. and Berg, G. (2019) ‘An Apple a Day: Which Bacteria Do We Eat With Organic and Conventional Apples?’, Frontiers in Microbiology, 10. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01629 
  14. Hoskin-Parr, L. et al. (2013) ‘Antibiotic exposure in the first two years of life and development of asthma and other allergic diseases by 7.5 yr: A dose-dependent relationship’, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 24(8), pp. 762–771. doi: 10.1111/pai.12153. 

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